Department of Hydrology and Climatology

 

 

<p style="text-align: justify;">Today the consequences of climate change are obvious in every point of the earth, especially in the mountainous regions. Numbers of natural catastrophes and losses have been increased as well due to deviation of mean air temperature and amount of atmospheric precipitation from the norm, which in itself stipulates intensity and frequency of this or that elemental processes. It is acknowledged by scientists that the reason of activation of mentioned process is a global warming stipulated by anthropogenic factor. </p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In order to study completely the present climate changes in <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, it is necessary to research past climate and identify the structure of climate change. The classical formula of climate says: &ldquo;that there is - it was and that was - it would be&rdquo;. Therefore, it is interesting, what happened centuries ago? What was the course of main meteorological elements - air temperature and atmospheric precipitation, which are one of the main agents of natural catastrophes.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">To answer these questions, scientists used different methods, on basis of which the interesting conclusions are made. One of the methods is a dendroclimatological one, which implicates the restoration of data of air temperature and atmospheric precipitation according to the amount of rings of ancient trees as well as by counting their density and by processing data in the laboratory.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;"><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, which is a poly-climatic country with the diversity of tree-plants, researches similar to this, never had being conduced. A for study the historical climate by method of tree rings, it is widely approved word wide and important results are obtained. </p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">By initiative of <a href="index.php?id=271&amp;lang=eng">Dali Mumladze</a>, the Academic Doctor of Sciences, the climatologists of Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography (VBIG), the dendroclimatology was chosen as a priority of their scientific activity. In order to carry out researches, a Project was submitted to Georgian National Scientific Foundation (GNSF) by the title: &ldquo;Structure of climate change of <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> in recent Millennium&rdquo;.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In 90s of last century due to hard economic situation in <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, forest felling of great scale took place for different purposes. One of the objects where tree-plants were conserved, were the reserves. That is why the Protected Areas became target for our researches. We selected Achara as a research object, which is one of the original and unique sites by its air, soil cover and landscapes, by its southern location, local physical-geographical conditions, three unique Protected Areas and the Botanical Garden, where the nearly untouched Colchis forest is presented with its endemic species.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">We - <a href="index.php?id=271&amp;lang=eng">D. Mumladze</a>, Senior Scientific-researcher and N. Lomidze, Scientific researcher of the VBIG visited Achara by expedition in September 16-25, 2009. Our research aimed at exploring ancient trees, to measure their diameters, fixing their location by using GPS and afterwards, mapping by means of Geo Information Systems (GISs). As the dendroclimatological research of historical climate is expensive, our summer expedition&rsquo;s main goal was identification of presence of ancient trees, to get in touch with local authority for possibilities of conduction of future researches (to obtain their permission) and to evaluate environment for future works.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">The first object we started with was <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placename w:st="on">Batumi</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">Botanical Garden</st1:placetype></st1:place>. It is located in Mtsvane Kontskhi (<st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placename w:st="on">Green</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">Cape</st1:placetype></st1:place>). Its area reaches 114 ha. Elevation is within 0 - 220 m above sea level and comprises all elements characteristic for slopes looking to the direction of Achara coast. The Garden includes 2037 taxonomic units. 104 out of them are of Caucasian origin and 1540 are the representatives of flora of different foreign countries.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In the Garden area we carried out research in the section of <st1:place w:st="on">Caucasus</st1:place> forest, presented by ancient tree-plants. By kind assistance of local dendrologists we assessed them visually and by using the GPS took coordinates of 15 older than 300 years old trees. These are the trees we are interested in.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">As a rule, the identification of age of the trees is being identified by its cutting and counting its rings or using the &ldquo;Proestler drill&rdquo;, which neither for us and nor for local researches was available, but selection of the trees had been conducted by previously carried out dating and natural indices of a tree (height, diameter, size of a tree crown).</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">Coordinates of the following tree species have been measured: oak (<i>Quercus</i>), hornbeam (<i>Carpinus</i>), maple (<i>Acer</i>), beech (<i>Fagus</i>), chestnut (<i>Castanea</i>), box-tree (<i>Buxus</i>), lime-tree (<i>Tilia</i>) and cherry laurel (<i>Laurocerasus oppicinali</i>).</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<table border="0" style="width: 552px; height: 270px; text-align: justify;">
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>
<p style="text-align: center;"><img width="287" height="253" src="uploads/clip_image90.jpg" /></p>
</td>
<td>
<p style="text-align: center;"><img width="299" height="256" src="uploads/clip_image12.jpg" /></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p>Hartwis&rsquo; oak (<i>Quercus hartwissiana</i>)</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td>
<p>Head of the Division Dali Mumladze (to the right),&nbsp;
</p>
<p>Scientific-researcher Nino Mumladze</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">The second object of our research was Kintrishi Protected Areas in Kobuleti region with the area of 13 893 ha, 10 703 ha out of them are occupied by the Reserve and 3 190 ha - by Protected Landscape. The Protected Areas are located at about 350-2600 m above sea level. Reserve dendroflora comprises 102 species including 46 tree species.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">At our fortune there are plenty of ancient trees in Kintrishi Protected Areas. We would like to distinguish the yew tree (<i>Taxus baccata</i>) as an ancient relict and unique monument of nature. It is an object of particular protection and included in the &ldquo;Red List&rdquo;. It grows very slowly gaining 2-3 mm per year. In the most favorable soil conditions it can be grown up to a meter during 10 years. Its needles live for 8-10 years. By certain researcher<sup>,</sup>s mind, the live time of yew-tree is about 4000 years.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<table border="0" style="width: 225px; height: 31px;">
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><img width="290" height="241" src="uploads/clip_image11.jpg" /></td>
<td><img width="305" height="241" src="uploads/clip_image10.jpg" /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Yew tree
<p>(<i>Taxus baccata</i>)</p>
</td>
<td>
<p>Yew is the only coniferous species the fruit of which is not a cone.</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">Together with the scientific team of the Reserve we worked on four yew trees (<i>Taxus baccata</i>), age of which exceeded 1000 years. Their diameter and height indicate to it. In Kintrishi Protected Areas live more representatives of this species, though we were able to see only few of them due to lack of sufficient time and hard accessibility to those trees.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In Kintrishi Protected Areas doubtfully, are other species of ancient trees characteristic for Colchis forest, but as they are of same age as those in the Botanical Garden, all available work time we dedicated to yew-tree - this unique and thousands of years old tree species.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">During our trip to Kintrishi Reserve the representative of Kobuleti Forestry Service accompanied us, who confirmed the presence of ancient trees at their working territory. He was interested in our research and promised to assist us in case extension of our research.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">The third object was <st1:placename w:st="on">Mtirala</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">National Park</st1:placetype>, established in 2006 for the purposes of protection of <st1:place w:st="on">Colchis</st1:place> forest. Flora of Mtirala is rich and diverse. In the territory of National Park are spread forest vegetation, such as chestnut (<i>Castanea</i>), &nbsp;beech (<i>Fagus</i>) and Colchis mixed forest, as well as shrubs of the evergreen yellow azalea (<i>Rhododendron luteum</i>), characteristic for Kolkheti. This territory is the most humid areas within <st1:country-region w:st="on">Georgia</st1:country-region>, especially, the <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placetype w:st="on">Mt.</st1:placetype> <st1:placename w:st="on">Mtirala</st1:placename></st1:place> with a height of 1381 m above sea level and with 4520 mm precipitation annually.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">By kind assistance of researchers of <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placename w:st="on">Mtirala</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">National Park</st1:placetype></st1:place>, we were able to see only a little part of protected flora. In comparison with the other Protected Areas of the region, due to steep slopes we could carry out measurements only on few ancient trees, such as: beech, lime-tree and chestnut.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">Achara region is very interesting regarding dendroclimatological research. Ancient trees are presented here in big amount in the Protected Areas and in the forest. It can be easier conduction of our research works in the forests.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">During our 10-day expedition, by foreseen of local variable weather conditions, we could implement the observation-exploring works in two Protected Areas and Botanical garden, establish contact with the authority of mentioned objects and we got somewhat agreement from them on future cooperation.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">At the instant of scientific researchers of Kintrishi Protected Areas we will map its territory by means of GISs (the map is under processing).</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">If the research of historical climate of Georgia by dendrological method will be initiated by us, the working process will be interesting not only for the climatologists, but for the scientists working in the Protected Areas, as a new certification of trees and their mapping by GISs will be carried out.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">Today the consequences of climate change are obvious in every point of the earth, especially in the mountainous regions. Numbers of natural catastrophes and losses have been increased as well due to deviation of mean air temperature and amount of atmospheric precipitation from the norm, which in itself stipulates intensity and frequency of this or that elemental processes. It is acknowledged by scientists that the reason of activation of mentioned process is a global warming stipulated by anthropogenic factor. </p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In order to study completely the present climate changes in <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, it is necessary to research past climate and identify the structure of climate change. The classical formula of climate says: &ldquo;that there is - it was and that was - it would be&rdquo;. Therefore, it is interesting, what happened centuries ago? What was the course of main meteorological elements - air temperature and atmospheric precipitation, which are one of the main agents of natural catastrophes.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">To answer these questions, scientists used different methods, on basis of which the interesting conclusions are made. One of the methods is a dendroclimatological one, which implicates the restoration of data of air temperature and atmospheric precipitation according to the amount of rings of ancient trees as well as by counting their density and by processing data in the laboratory.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;"><st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, which is a poly-climatic country with the diversity of tree-plants, researches similar to this, never had being conduced. A for study the historical climate by method of tree rings, it is widely approved word wide and important results are obtained. </p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">By initiative of <a href="index.php?id=271&amp;lang=eng">Dali Mumladze</a>, the Academic Doctor of Sciences, the climatologists of Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography (VBIG), the dendroclimatology was chosen as a priority of their scientific activity. In order to carry out researches, a Project was submitted to Georgian National Scientific Foundation (GNSF) by the title: &ldquo;Structure of climate change of <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> in recent Millennium&rdquo;.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In 90s of last century due to hard economic situation in <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, forest felling of great scale took place for different purposes. One of the objects where tree-plants were conserved, were the reserves. That is why the Protected Areas became target for our researches. We selected Achara as a research object, which is one of the original and unique sites by its air, soil cover and landscapes, by its southern location, local physical-geographical conditions, three unique Protected Areas and the Botanical Garden, where the nearly untouched Colchis forest is presented with its endemic species.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">We - <a href="index.php?id=271&amp;lang=eng">D. Mumladze</a>, Senior Scientific-researcher and N. Lomidze, Scientific researcher of the VBIG visited Achara by expedition in September 16-25, 2009. Our research aimed at exploring ancient trees, to measure their diameters, fixing their location by using GPS and afterwards, mapping by means of Geo Information Systems (GISs). As the dendroclimatological research of historical climate is expensive, our summer expedition&rsquo;s main goal was identification of presence of ancient trees, to get in touch with local authority for possibilities of conduction of future researches (to obtain their permission) and to evaluate environment for future works.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">The first object we started with was <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placename w:st="on">Batumi</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">Botanical Garden</st1:placetype></st1:place>. It is located in Mtsvane Kontskhi (<st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placename w:st="on">Green</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">Cape</st1:placetype></st1:place>). Its area reaches 114 ha. Elevation is within 0 - 220 m above sea level and comprises all elements characteristic for slopes looking to the direction of Achara coast. The Garden includes 2037 taxonomic units. 104 out of them are of Caucasian origin and 1540 are the representatives of flora of different foreign countries.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In the Garden area we carried out research in the section of <st1:place w:st="on">Caucasus</st1:place> forest, presented by ancient tree-plants. By kind assistance of local dendrologists we assessed them visually and by using the GPS took coordinates of 15 older than 300 years old trees. These are the trees we are interested in.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">As a rule, the identification of age of the trees is being identified by its cutting and counting its rings or using the &ldquo;Proestler drill&rdquo;, which neither for us and nor for local researches was available, but selection of the trees had been conducted by previously carried out dating and natural indices of a tree (height, diameter, size of a tree crown).</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">Coordinates of the following tree species have been measured: oak (<i>Quercus</i>), hornbeam (<i>Carpinus</i>), maple (<i>Acer</i>), beech (<i>Fagus</i>), chestnut (<i>Castanea</i>), box-tree (<i>Buxus</i>), lime-tree (<i>Tilia</i>) and cherry laurel (<i>Laurocerasus oppicinali</i>).</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<table border="0" style="width: 552px; height: 270px; text-align: justify;">
<tbody>
<tr>
<td>
<p style="text-align: center;"><img width="287" height="253" src="uploads/clip_image90.jpg" /></p>
</td>
<td>
<p style="text-align: center;"><img width="299" height="256" src="uploads/clip_image12.jpg" /></p>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<p>Hartwis&rsquo; oak (<i>Quercus hartwissiana</i>)</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
</td>
<td>
<p>Head of the Division Dali Mumladze (to the right),&nbsp;
</p>
<p>Scientific-researcher Nino Mumladze</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">The second object of our research was Kintrishi Protected Areas in Kobuleti region with the area of 13 893 ha, 10 703 ha out of them are occupied by the Reserve and 3 190 ha - by Protected Landscape. The Protected Areas are located at about 350-2600 m above sea level. Reserve dendroflora comprises 102 species including 46 tree species.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">At our fortune there are plenty of ancient trees in Kintrishi Protected Areas. We would like to distinguish the yew tree (<i>Taxus baccata</i>) as an ancient relict and unique monument of nature. It is an object of particular protection and included in the &ldquo;Red List&rdquo;. It grows very slowly gaining 2-3 mm per year. In the most favorable soil conditions it can be grown up to a meter during 10 years. Its needles live for 8-10 years. By certain researcher<sup>,</sup>s mind, the live time of yew-tree is about 4000 years.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<table border="0" style="width: 225px; height: 31px;">
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><img width="290" height="241" src="uploads/clip_image11.jpg" /></td>
<td><img width="305" height="241" src="uploads/clip_image10.jpg" /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Yew tree
<p>(<i>Taxus baccata</i>)</p>
</td>
<td>
<p>Yew is the only coniferous species the fruit of which is not a cone.</p>
</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">Together with the scientific team of the Reserve we worked on four yew trees (<i>Taxus baccata</i>), age of which exceeded 1000 years. Their diameter and height indicate to it. In Kintrishi Protected Areas live more representatives of this species, though we were able to see only few of them due to lack of sufficient time and hard accessibility to those trees.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">In Kintrishi Protected Areas doubtfully, are other species of ancient trees characteristic for Colchis forest, but as they are of same age as those in the Botanical Garden, all available work time we dedicated to yew-tree - this unique and thousands of years old tree species.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">During our trip to Kintrishi Reserve the representative of Kobuleti Forestry Service accompanied us, who confirmed the presence of ancient trees at their working territory. He was interested in our research and promised to assist us in case extension of our research.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">The third object was <st1:placename w:st="on">Mtirala</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">National Park</st1:placetype>, established in 2006 for the purposes of protection of <st1:place w:st="on">Colchis</st1:place> forest. Flora of Mtirala is rich and diverse. In the territory of National Park are spread forest vegetation, such as chestnut (<i>Castanea</i>), &nbsp;beech (<i>Fagus</i>) and Colchis mixed forest, as well as shrubs of the evergreen yellow azalea (<i>Rhododendron luteum</i>), characteristic for Kolkheti. This territory is the most humid areas within <st1:country-region w:st="on">Georgia</st1:country-region>, especially, the <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placetype w:st="on">Mt.</st1:placetype> <st1:placename w:st="on">Mtirala</st1:placename></st1:place> with a height of 1381 m above sea level and with 4520 mm precipitation annually.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">By kind assistance of researchers of <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:placename w:st="on">Mtirala</st1:placename> <st1:placetype w:st="on">National Park</st1:placetype></st1:place>, we were able to see only a little part of protected flora. In comparison with the other Protected Areas of the region, due to steep slopes we could carry out measurements only on few ancient trees, such as: beech, lime-tree and chestnut.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">Achara region is very interesting regarding dendroclimatological research. Ancient trees are presented here in big amount in the Protected Areas and in the forest. It can be easier conduction of our research works in the forests.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">During our 10-day expedition, by foreseen of local variable weather conditions, we could implement the observation-exploring works in two Protected Areas and Botanical garden, establish contact with the authority of mentioned objects and we got somewhat agreement from them on future cooperation.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">At the instant of scientific researchers of Kintrishi Protected Areas we will map its territory by means of GISs (the map is under processing).</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">If the research of historical climate of Georgia by dendrological method will be initiated by us, the working process will be interesting not only for the climatologists, but for the scientists working in the Protected Areas, as a new certification of trees and their mapping by GISs will be carried out.</p>
<p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p>