Creation of a Basin Management System of Kakhetian Water Resources AR/121/9-180/13

 

Financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation

Project Principal Investigator, Dr.Vakhtang Geladze

Project duration, 24 months (2014-2016)

 

  

Water is a vital element of our environmental essential for existence of all living species human beings inclusive. It is true that this precious “first priority resource of the 21st century” is renewable one, but in case of improper use it may become entirely useless. Any earthwork, cutting or planting of forests and windbreak strips are directly connected with the change of territory water balance structure.

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. About 40% of the Earth population has permanent mutual conflicts caused by shortage of water resources. According to UN forecast fresh water resources of the world will be reduced by 20% because of the global warming. During low water periods the rivers runoff will be reduced and water quality deteriorated. By the 50-ies of 21st century over 2 billion people in 48 countries will be affected by fresh water deficiency.

Water resources of Georgia are located within the basins of two – Black and Caspian seas.  According to the average height of water layer Georgia (760 mm) follows Norway (1190 mm), Switzerland (1040 mm) and Austria (800 mm) among the European countries.

Despite of 810 000 m3 of water produced annually per one km2 of the country on the average, water supply of population at its Eastern part is an acute issue. Under more or less equal conditions in the Western (32.0 thousands of km2) and the Eastern (37.0 km2) parts of Georgia with nearly the same population (2.3 and 2.8 millions respectively) the annual fresh water volume per capita is 17700 m3 in Western and 4600 m3 in Eastern Georgia that is nearly four times less. Moreover the annual runoff distribution per month for irrigation purposes is irregular here.

According to the forecast  (The 2nd National Communication, 2009), at the end of  21st century in the southern part of Kakheti it is expected decrease of hydrothermal coefficient from 1,1 to 0,7, which will shift the region’s climate from subtropics into very dry category. The influence will be spread along the entire territory of Kakheti. On the background of current climate change for mitigation and adaptation to the mentioned process, one of the real active measures is to move to manageable water consumption for the purposes of rational use of water resources.

On that basis and from the management point of view water resources of Kakheti region are the important and  interesting to proceed to the controlled use of water and to estimate water deficit or excess according to its requirements.