General overview


Georgia is situated in the extreme south-east of Europe in the territory between the Azov, Black and Caspian Seas which is called the Caucasia.

 The major orographic unit of the Caucasia is the Cavcasioni which divides it into two parts- southern and northern Transcaucasia. Georgia is situated in the south-west part of Transcaucasia at the Black Sea coast in latitude 410 07'- 43035' North and longitude 400 04'- 460 44' East.

 The territory of Georgia comprises 69,7 thousand square kilometers. The population is 4,394 million. The country borders on four states: the Russian Federation in the north (815 km),  the republic of Azerbaijan in the east and  south-east (460km), the Republic of Armenia in the south (197 km),  Turkey in the south-west (248 km).

 A rather favorable geographical location of Georgia attaches her the significance of transit country. The routes connecting countries of Europe and Frontal Asia, Near East, Middle and Central Asia traverse Georgia.

 Such routes of the  world importance as Baku-Supsa, Baku- Tbilisi - Ceyhan pipeline and Shah-Deniz gas- main cross Georgia.

 Proximity to the sea enhances Georgia's importance as a transit country. Through the sea ports at the Black Sea coast Poti, Batumi and Sukhumi (closed at present) Georgia is connected with the whole world.

 Georgia is a mountainous country, 54% of its territory is occupied by mountains, 33% - by foothills and 13% by lowlands. The highest peak is Mt. Shkhara-5203 m.(According to some other data - 5201 m., 5068 m.) which is situated on the main watershed range of the Caucasioni.(The Great Caucasus range)  Average height of the territory is 1230m. Georgia consists of three drastically diverse relief regions; 1. Caucasioni, which in its turn is divided into western, central and eastern parts. It covers high mountain zone with glaciers, gorges and troughs. 2. Inter-mountainous lowland -  divided by Likhi range  into two parts -Kolkheti and Iveria lowland. Both parts are mainly hillocky plains but some areas are low and middle mountainous. The majority of population (88%) is accumulated here. 3. The Minor  Caucasioni is with comparatively low mountains than  the Main Caucasioni range. Here we come across plateaus  situated at a  quite high altitude from the sea level with dead  volcano cones on their surface.

 The climate of Georgia is quite diverse notwithstanding its small territory. The main watershed of the Caucasioni protects Georgia from cold masses of air from the north, therefore plays  a decisive role on formation of climate in Georgia. The  Black Sea makes climate mild and favors abundant precipitation fall especially in Western Georgia. The  Minor  Caucasioni highland partly protects invasion  of dry and hot masses from the south. Here are distinguished two climatic regions: Marine humid subtropical in Western Georgia  and transitional  from subtropical continental  to  marine climate  in eastern Georgia and transitional  sub-region from dry subtropical to moderately humid climate in South Georgia.

 Georgia is rich in water resources (rivers, lakes, glaciers, swamps subterranean water etc.)

 The rivers of Georgia belong to the Black and Caspian Sea basins. The river drainage of the Black Sea basin  owing  to the abundant atmospheric precipitation is much more  denser  than the drainage of the Caspian Sea river basins and they carry much more water than do those of Eastern Georgia.